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January 2016

Volume 2  Issue 1

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Research article
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Cancer

Anver Kuliev*, Svetlana Rechitsky

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is now an established approach for preventing genetic disorders, utilized for over 500 different genetic conditions and thousands of their causing mutations. If done according to the available guidelines, PGD for monogenic disorders is highly accurate and reliable, with close to 99% accuracy rate. A current wider application of PGD is due to its expanding use for common diseases, including inherited predisposition to cancer, the indication that has never been applied in prenatal diagnosis.        
                                          

                                                                                                                                                                     Download PDF Full text

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Research article
Evaluating the Effect of an Educational Teaching Model on the Knowledge about Breast Cancer among Female University Students in Iraq

Nada A.S. Alwan*, Wafa’ M. Al-Attar

Globally, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy among women. It is also the leading cause of cancer- related deaths, case fatality rates being highest in low resource countries. In Iraq, it ranked the first cancer among the Iraqi population since the last two decades. Features that justify increasing efforts for breast cancer control in developing countries in general and Iraq in particular include the younger ages and advanced stages at the time of presentation and the likely prevalence of more aggressive tumours resulting in greater fatality rates.                                          

                                                                                                                                                                     Download PDF Full text

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Review article
Immunotherapeutic Approach to Osteosarcoma

Timothy Allen, MD, Ph.D., Ghazaleh Shoja E Razavi* MD

Osteosarcoma is a rare form of cancer that account for less than 0.2% of all cancers diagnosed in the United States. Unfortunately, the cause is unknown, but there have been several risks factors accused of causing the disease such as genetics, Paget disease, exposure to radiation or chemicals, and bone marrow transplants. Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment alternative to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Its goal is to use a patient’s own immune system to fight the tumor. The patient’s immune system is stimulated by exposing synthetic immune molecules into their system. In this paper, we discuss the potential causes of osteosarcomas, the pathophysiology of the disease, and potential ways to cure the disease using different immunotherapy techniques.
                                            

                                                                                                                                                                     Download PDF Full text

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Review article
Emerging Role of Immunotherapy in Breast Cancer

Timothy Allen, MD, Ph.D., Ghazaleh Shoja E Razavi* MD

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women, after non-melanoma skin cancer. One out of every 8 woman in the United States will develop breast cancer. It can be caused by genetic mutations, using certain medicines, or even hereditary disorders. Traditionally breast cancer would be treated through surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. However, novel approaches in targeting the tumor cells rather than normal cells are changing both the therapeutic options and the prognosis of breast cancer.
                                              

                                                                                                                                                                     Download PDF Full text__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Review article
Targeted therapy for Chondrosarcoma

Timothy Allen, MD, Ph.D., Ghazaleh Shoja E Razavi* MD

Primary malignant bone tumors occur 1/100,000, of which 17-24% consists of chondrosarcoma. Unfortunately, the cause is unknown, but there have been several risks factors accused of causing the disease. Targeted therapy is a cancer specific treatment alternative to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Its goal is to control and inhibit cancer promoting pathways as well as activating patient’s own immune system to fight the tumor. The patient’s immune system is stimulated by exposing synthetic immune molecules into their system. In this paper, we discuss the potential causes of chondrosarcomas, the pathophysiology of the disease, and potential ways to cure the disease using different targeted therapy techniques.
                                              

                                                                                                                                                                     Download PDF Full text

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