Volume 1 Issue 1
Extracellular Microenvironment Components of Glioblastoma as Possible Therapeutic Targets
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is a highly invasive primary brain tumor representing more than half of all gliomas with an average patient survival time of only 12 to 15 months. Unlike tumors derived from peripheral tissues, GBM is known to rarely metastasize outside its original location in the central nervous system (CNS). This characteristic is attributed to both a limited survival time of GBM patients as well as the specific and unique composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the brain supportive for migration and invasion by glioma cells into the normal brain tissue.
Sprouty Proteins and Cancer
Sprouty proteins are inducible modulators of mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MAPK/ERK) pathway that regulate key cellular functions, including cell vitality, differentiation and motility. Owing to their critical regulatory functions, Sprouty proteins are well documented to participate in developmental and adult physiological processes and, consistently, to be implicated in the regulation of pathological conditions, including cancer. Since discovery in Drosophila in 1998, four human homologs of Sprouty have been identified, among which Spry1, Spry2 and Spry4 have been reported to be deregulated in a variety of malignant conditions.
Circulating microRNAs as Cancer Early Diagnostic Biomarkers-Promises and Concerns
Zhishan Wang, Chengfeng Yang*
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large family of small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate protein-coding gene expression post-transcriptionally. Since the discovery of first miRNA in 1993 and the first reporting of the presence of circulating miRNA in 2008, numerous studies have demonstrated the potential involvement of miRNAs in almost all aspects of cancer. In aiming to identify minimally invasive cancer early diagnostic biomarkers, a large number of studies have shown differential expression profiles or signatures of circulating miRNAs between healthy control populations and various cancer patients
Candesartan Suppresses Intestinal Carcinogenesis Partly Through Inhibition of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor1- Expression
Zhishan Wang, Chengfeng Yang*
Obesity is a major cause of metabolic syndrome and is a convincing risk factor for colorectal cancer. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is activated in obese individuals and has been suggested to play important roles in development of hypertension and several cancers. To cast light on the significance of RAS for obesity-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, we examined the effects of an angiotensin II receptor blocker, candesartan, on colorectal carcinogenesis using obese KK-Ay mice and Apc-mutant Min mice.
Role of Small Breast Epithelial Mucin (SBEM) in Breast Cancer
SBEM as a kind of secreted protein, which expressed only in mammary gland and salivary gland, can be used to be a tumor marker in breast cancer and specific target in treatment. SBEM detection in Peripheral blood (PB) and tissue of breast cancer patients maybe helpful for early diagnosis, choice of treatment, decision of the degree of malignancy and risk prediction of recurrence. The changing of expression level can predict the curative effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Sequence Analyses of Oncogenic and Tumor Suppressive miRNAs in Cancers
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼25 nucleotides) noncoding RNA molecules thought to play an important role in regulating gene expression. Knowledge of the biological functions of most miRNAs is still limited, but these miRNAs are thought to regulate the gene expression in various diseases. In this paper, the sequences of oncogenic and tumor suppressive miRNAs in human cancers are examined from the viewpoint of up- and down-regulation.
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) VAL66MET Polymorphism and Symptoms in Breast Cancer Survivors
Sylvia Heinze*, Phoebe D. Williams, Janet Pierce, Francisco J. Diaz, Kenneth Ferris Kirschner
The relationship between occurrence and severity of cancer-related symptoms in breast cancer survivors following treatment and the presence or absence of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism was examined in this study. Individuals with the BDNF polymorphism were predicted to be more prone to persistent cancer-related symptoms following treatment.